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Posts Filed Under The ‘Raw Milk’ Category

Thursday, January 16th, 2014

New Year’s Resolution: Eat more Cheese!

New Year’s Resolution: Eat more Cheese!

During the first part of the year we make plans to take better care of ourselves: we try to go to the gym on a regular basis, we write ambitious to-do lists, we aim to get more sleep, we cut back on sugar and other carbs, we walk up stairs instead of taking the elevator, we schedule that overdue dentist appointment, and many people try to quit smoking. We all mean well but we can easily fall back into old patterns.

One of the easier resolutions to keep is to eat more cheese. By doing so you will be taking better care of yourself, you may even sleep better, you will likely cut back on other emptier calories. You may feel more like walking up the stairs, your dentist will notice your healthier teeth and gums, if you are unable to quit smoking it should offer some comfort knowing that the CLA derived from cheese has been shown to be an effective cancer fighter, and if you do head to the gym you will be a little more energized going in and you will recognize better results coming out. All this because you are eating a little more cheese!

However not just any old cheese.

When I update my picks for Max’s Especially Healthy Plate I make sure that each cheese in the collection is crafted from milk that has not been compromised by excessive heat treatment, as in pasteurization. There are plenty of good nutrients in the pasteurized varieties but not quite as many as you will get from the raw versions. Some of the nutrients are destroyed by pasteurization while others are far less bio-available. The fat soluble vitamins are reduced  significantly. According to recent studies conducted in Barcelona up to 80% of the vitamins A and D are lost in heat treatment. Whatever vitamin C may have been in the milk is zapped, the B vitamins are reduced, and some of the minerals that would have been chelated to the milk proteins are no longer available; the proteins that would enable their transport having been denatured by the high heat of pasteurization.

Again, there are plenty of nutrients in the pasteurized cheeses too, just not quite enough to hold up to the standards of my Especially Healthy Plate.

Do yourself some good and eat more cheese in 2014.

Max McCalman

Monday, January 6th, 2014

Fondue Weather

 

The weather we’re experiencing around here these days suggests fondue. For other parts of the country even more so! Nothing warms you better than melted cheese and currently there are several specimens here that dissolve beautifully into simmering white wines. One of the original fondue cheeses is Fontina d’Aosta, always crafted from raw cow milk, as they have been for over a thousand years. The so-called “mountain” cheeses are the ones to seek out, especially the cow milk varieties.

Why cow?

It seems that cow milk cheeses are better at melting into a fondue than sheep, and certainly better than goat cheeses. Many of these mountain cheeses are delicious on their own at room temperatures, yet Fontina (though delicious at room temperature) simply does not hold up so well when left out. A wedge of Fontina will start to slump, the butter fats will leach out, and the wedge will dry out quickly. The cheese seems to demand that it be melted down, which is one reason why it makes an excellent cooking cheese.

A similar cheese from across the border in eastern France is Morbier, more of a smear-ripened cheese than Fontina but equally nice at melting. The Morbier has the same disposition when set out at room temperature as the Fontina d’Aosta. The harder cheeses that are closely related to these stand up better when left out, such as Comté, Gruyère, Uplands Pleasant Ridge and Tarentaise. When I first started snacking on these types at room temperature I was admonished, as though that was the only way to fully enjoy them, melted.

Maybe that is true for today’s weather but when it warms up in a few months, I would prefer to leave the fondue pot in storage and instead shave off several thin slices of these marvelous cheeses, invariably some of the most popular in cheese competitions.

Max McCalman

Wednesday, November 6th, 2013

Mountain Cheeses

Wengern Alp cheese dairy cowkeeper milking cow Bernese Oberland Switzerland e1383773182237 Mountain Cheeses

What makes a cheese a “mountain cheese,” other than that it comes from a mountain?

It was fascinating to discover that mountain cheeses are more aromatically complex than low-land cheeses. Upon reflection, it does make sense. Dairy animals grazing on upper elevations would have a greater diversity of plant species than their cousins by the sea. This wider mix of pasturage leads to greater nutritive values as well as more complex aromas.

Another reason why most mountain cheeses are more complex than those from the lower elevations is that historically, the mountain cheeses were created in larger formats so that they could age longer to help sustain its makers and their families throughout the winter months when other sources of nutrition might be a little scant. The larger sizes had a practical function as well. It is easier to transport one larger wheel of cheese than many smaller ones, especially up and down mountainsides. The low-land cheeses are mostly made for quick consumption, so these cheeses may not acquire the depth of flavors that the more aged mountain cheeses may exhibit. One notable exception to this is an aged Dutch Gouda; those can age out to six years, developing greater complexity throughout their ripening.

Dairies in upper elevations take advantage of other qualities of their terroir. The water is usually cleaner up in the hills than down in the valleys, after the water picks up impurities on its descent. The air is also usually much cleaner in the hills than down in the valleys and near waterways where our own species congregates. The lowland settlements have left their imprint on the land, not only the human impact but also that of the animals themselves, farming, and the use of pesticides and herbicides. Moving up the hillsides you have less residue from all this.

Some lowland pastures feature only a couple of different plant species to enjoy, whereas the higher pastures can contain dozens of species. The greater the diversity in the pasturage, the more complex the milk will be, as well as the resulting cheese. Some of the greatest regions for dairying in Europe include the alps of France, Switzerland and Italy; the Pyrénées of France and south of the border into Spain, and westward to Asturias; the higher elevations of the Rouergue, Franche-Comté, the Auvergne, Alsace, and Bavaria, to name a few. Here in the United States we have the hills of Vermont, Virginia, Oregon and Colorado, among others.

There is a greater proportion of raw milk cheeses produced in the upper elevations than there is in the lowlands. This can be partly attributed to the larger formats of mountain cheeses — those that can age out longer and thus easily satisfy the minimum aging requirements of sixty days, a minimum that has taken hold in other countries besides the United States.

I should not have to go into why the raw milk cheeses have greater complexity, on average, than the compromised milk varieties. Yet if anyone needs more clarification on that I will be happy to hold forth.

Head for the hills! I recently did. I spent last weekend in the high altitudes of the fifth Colorado Cheese Festival, this year in Longmont.

- Max McCalman

Monday, July 22nd, 2013

Vive la France, Oui Oui!

800px Cheese shop window Paris e1374515476622 Vive la France, Oui Oui!

The excitement occurring in the cheese world today is occurring right here within our shores. However there are some cheeses that simply will not be successfully replicated outside their original provenances. Actually, no cheeses can be recreated identically if produced in different places. There are too many variables that come into play. The French have elevated the importance of terroir, as well they should. For a country about the size of Texas there are many distinct soils, climates, topographies and cultural/historical influences. These qualities which define terroir shape the profiles of cheeses dramatically. The same cheesemaker will not be able to make the same cheese in a different locale. Even if she has the same milk to work with, and the same recipe, the locations where the cheeses are produced and cured will have their own influences on the cheesemaker’s cheese.

The French were not the first to make cheese, nor do they produce the most cheese, nor do they eat more cheese than anyone else, yet the cheeses of France are widely considered to be the best. Many people feel the same way about French wines – that they are the best. We are finding as many distinctions among French wines as we are among French cheeses. It is rather mind-boggling, this array of quality in French cheeses and wines.

French cheeses have found an important export market in the United States – a good thing since per capita consumption in France has been leveling off. While American cheeses continue to improve, these imported French cheeses are finding unexpected competition with our own artisan cheeses. There are many French cheeses that will never find their way onto our cheese shop’s shelves; the young cheeses made from unpasteurized milk find homes within France or in other less paranoid nations than ours. It is difficult for me to avoid this topic: the young cheeses crafted from uncompromised milk that are prohibited here. Many of these cheeses are becoming “luxury” cheeses within France itself. Cheeses that were recently humble peasant foods are now finding their way onto cheese trolleys of the most exclusive restaurants in the world. Sadly, some of these cheeses are barely hanging on; the economics simply don’t add up, even with the appreciation among well-healed turophiles.

The denial of young raw milk cheeses here has served to shape our cheese choices toward the more aged varieties, and fortunately with a little uptick in the raw milk cheeses too. This means that we do not have those young delicacies, most of which are as close as we can get to that fresh wholesome milk without destabilizing heat treatments. This is not to say that aged cheeses cannot be fabulous, both aesthetically and nutritionally, but it does mean we are missing out on a dizzying array of magnificent curds.

So what can we do to preserve these old cheesemaking traditions, many of which are very much endangered? I am afraid it is highly doubtful we will see any revisions to our regulations but we can go to France and eat them while there, or wherever they may be produced: England, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, etc. I have no problem with that: venturing to Europe to taste cheeses that are illegal here. It is easier for me to fly to Paris than it is to get to Burlington, Vermont. I missed the Vermont Cheese Festival again this year, partly for that reason. Another thing we can do is eat as much artisan cheese as we possibly can, from wherever, young or aged, pasteurized or not. If we eat more cheese it will help keep all cheesemakers in business and future generations will see the industry as one that is viable.

The only problem with eating all this extra cheese is that we will have to purchase new wardrobes; our waistlines will slim down dramatically. Seriously!

I’ll tell you all about it at the next Cheese & Wine 201, with a few tidbits thrown in at the next Cheeses & Wines of France.

Ever wonder why French women don’t get fat?

It’s the cheese!

- Max McCalman

Monday, June 17th, 2013

brown white cows 300x200

My good friend Mary Falk once referred to raw milk as “manna from heaven.” Today’s Wall Street Journal issued this press release: “New Studies Confirm: Raw Milk a Low-Risk Food”. Drawing from a Journal of Food Protection publication, three quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) demonstrate that unpasteurized milk is a low-risk food, contrary to previous, inappropriately-evidenced claims suggesting a high-risk profile.

Today, even (if not especially) within the dairy industry itself, raw milk is regarded as a dangerous food, whereas cheese is considered to be comparatively safe. That cheese may be safer could take into consideration the fermented nature of cheese with its lower pH level (the more acid environment tending to thwart pathogenic contamination) as well as the salt in cheese – salt being the great preservative that it is. The myths surrounding raw milk abound, which could have something to do with the word “raw.”

The peer-reviewed QMRAs demonstrate a low risk of illness from unpasteurized milk consumption for each of the main pathogens attributed to dairy: Campylobacter, Shiga-toxin inducing E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This low risk profile of raw milk is attributed to immunologically-susceptible groups as well as to healthy adults.

Anecdotally, in my two decades as a cheese guy the cheeses crafted from raw milk have enjoyed far longer shelf lives than their compromised milk counterparts.

- Max McCalman